Software Development: Methodologies and Agile Approach

Software Development: Methodologies and Agile Approach

Software development is a challenging profession with various real-life problems. Developers often encounter real-world challenges that can significantly disrupt the software development process. When left unresolved, these issues put projects at risk and lead to substantial financial losses for companies. By gaining insights into these approaches and recognizing the transformative potential of Agile Development, we can underscore the importance of embracing these approaches. This helps ensure project success and maintains a company’s competitiveness in today’s digital landscape.

Software Development Relationship

Software development is a complex process that involves creating and maintaining software to meet the needs of clients, customers, and users. 

Software Development Process

Expanding upon the interplay among these elements, a client is the individual or entity for whom a software development team creates the software. Clients furnish essential resources and anticipate a valuable product in return. In light of this, the development team’s foremost benchmark for success in a software project should be the satisfaction of their clients. Concurrently, a customer represents either an individual procuring software products or a team procuring them for organizational utilization. Meanwhile, a user constitutes the individual who actively employs the software product. In scenarios involving personal acquisitions, the development team classifies users as their customers, whereas for organizations, they reverses this categorization. 

In practical software development projects, there exist significant inherent risks related to functionality, cost, and time management. Specifically, the incorporation of additional functions invariably escalates expenses associated with development, testing, and ongoing maintenance. Furthermore, the introduction of what may be termed as “extra” functionality poses a parallel risk, as the resultant increased cost inevitably extends project timelines, potentially resulting in delayed deliveries that can, in turn, lead to customer dissatisfaction.

Software Development Process

Therefore, before starting one project, the development team must understand what the clients expect of the software, and what the client’s organization expects of the client. So it is utter important to truly understand the software development process and its different approach to avoid costly mistakes. A software development typically includes the following steps:

  • Requirements Gathering: Understanding what the software needs to do and how it will be used. 
  • Design: Creating a blueprint for the software, including its architecture, components, and interfaces. 
  • Implementation: Writing code and testing the software to ensure it works as expected.
  • Testing: Identifying and fixing any bugs in the software.
  • Deployment: Making the software available to users. 
  • Maintenance: Fixing bugs, adding new features, and updating the software to keep it compatible with new operating systems and hardware. 

In the software development process, teams often iterate, meaning they don’t always follow a linear sequence of steps. For instance, they may test and deploy the software multiple times as they develop it. Moreover, they might have to redesign or implement it differently if they discover new requirements or identify design flaws
By following a well-defined software development process, teams can increase their chances of success in creating and maintaining high-quality software.

Types of Software Development Process

There are 4 categories of software development processes:

  1. Iterative Refinement
  2. Spiral Approach
  3. Waterfall Model
  4. Agile Development

HaL Methodologies

First and foremost, it is important to recognize that HaL is an approach or methodology within the field of software development. While it may not be one of the primary four, we will frequently reference these terms, necessitating our familiarity with them.

In software development, the Heavyweight Method involves a methodical, step-by-step approach with the goal of creating a software product that needs minimal changes by completing each phase thoroughly, as seen in methods like Spiral, Incremental Development, and the Waterfall Model

Conversely, the Lightweight Method focuses on releasing small increments of working software while continually refining plans based on the team’s evolving experiences, offering more flexibility and adaptability, with methods such as Agile and Scrum being prime examples.

The main differences between Heavyweight and Lightweight methods are that heavyweight uses a sequential and rigid approach while lightweight uses a parallel and flexible approach. Heavyweight methodologies are suitable for large and stable systems, while lightweight are suitable for small and dynamic systems. Dealing with clients, heavyweight negotiates with them and follows the plans. While Lightweight methods collaborate with clients and respond to change, giving it certain flexibility when it comes to software development.  

Iterative Refinement

Iterative refinement is a process of developing a program or a product by starting with a simplified version of a problem and adding details and functionalities bit by bit.
Iterative Refinement
In a project, we commence by early-stage development through the creation of a prototype system, achieved via design and subsequent implementation. This prototype undergoes review by clients and testing by users, aligning with the project’s requirements. Throughout a series of iterations, the team continually refines the prototype until they release the final product. They employ various techniques in this iterative refinement process, such as creating user interface mock-ups, developing disposable software components, designing dummy modules, using rapid prototyping, and performing successive refinement. 

It is important to note that iterative refinement is not strictly a heavyweight or lightweight methodology; rather, it operates as a versatile and adaptable medium-weight process that can be integrated into various methods. This iterative approach allows for rapid problem-solving and innovation but necessitates multiple iterations before the final product finalizes. Additionally, it is crucial to recognize that errors made during the Requirements phase can prove to be the most expensive and costly for both the company and the development team.


Spiral development represents a risk-driven software development model that amalgamates elements from both the iterative and waterfall models, which we will delve into later. It is a sophisticated and flexible approach geared towards addressing high-risk, intricate projects by proactively identifying and continuously managing risks.

Spiral Development

In this approach, the foundation of the system is initially created to capture the overall structure of the final product, incorporating dummy stubs for any missing components. The development team meticulously formulates a comprehensive suite of test cases for all completed components, while for new or enhanced elements, a succession of sprints is executed, each accompanied by its set of test cases. This iterative cycle repeats regularly. Spiral Development finds extensive use in the development of new versions of large systems.

Spiral development offers several advantages, including the ability to develop and test large components independently, which can enhance overall project efficiency. It excels in managing complex and high-risk projects by proactively addressing potential issues. Additionally, Spiral Development is well-suited for setting up a comprehensive suite of automated tests, ensuring robust software quality. However, it also presents challenges, notably in making changes to the architecture, which can be difficult once the development process is underway. Moreover, small alterations can ripple through many components, potentially increasing development efforts.

Waterfall Model 

Waterfall Model

The Waterfall model is a heavyweight process characterized by comprehensive documentation at each process step. In practice, as each stage unfolds, it yields new insights into previous phases, necessitating revisions at earlier stages. Furthermore, it becomes challenging to establish a proposed budget and schedule without a preliminary examination of the requirements and tentative design. 

However, the Waterfall model faces several practical issues, rendering it infrequently used. While it offers advantages such as process visibility, quality control, and cost monitoring at each step, it falls short in terms of flexibility. The detailed design and implementation phases often uncover gaps in the initial requirements, prompting modifications during the project’s development.

Agile Development

Agile Development Process Model

Agile development represents a lightweight approach characterized by minimal documentation created throughout the process, rooted in the Agile Manifesto’s principles for software development, emphasizing working software, customer feedback, and adaptability to change. The project’s development unfolds through numerous sprints, each culminating in thoroughly tested code. Following each sprint, the code may be released individually or combined with code from other sprints for subsequent releases, contributing to a larger code base. 

Agile development excels in continuously enhancing a system within its established architecture, minimizing resource wastage and enhancing adaptability to changes. It delivers high-quality software solutions swiftly. Nonetheless, minor disadvantages persist; for instance, higher-level teams must establish an overall architecture and coordinate sprint activities, and predictability can be compromised as Agile heavily relies on flexibility and adaptability.

Choosing a software development approach

When dealing with poorly understood requirements or anticipating changes, a recommended approach involves the use of iterative refinement, complemented by agile sprints and phased implementation.

In scenarios where a significant software system comprises numerous interconnected components and major design changes during development are to be avoided, a sequential process, akin to a modified version of the waterfall model, is advisable.

When facing uncertainty in understanding the software market, employing incremental development alongside agile sprints, which promptly place operational software in front of customers, proves advantageous.

Considering these diverse software development approaches, each comes with its own set of advantages and drawbacks. The choice ultimately rests with users and team members. In our case, we’ve opted for the agile approach due to its agility in responding to evolving requirements and customer needs, its commitment to continuous product enhancement through feedback and iteration, fostering enhanced teamwork and collaboration across cross-functional teams, reducing the risks of failure and resource wastage, and, significantly, providing valuable metrics and progress indicators for product quality and development progress.

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